Objectives of Teaching:
The objectives of teaching are given below:
- To provide knowledge and skills to learners so that they can cope with the fast-changing world.
- To mould and shape learners.
- To nurture students during all stages of learning.
- To inculcate values, morals, punctuality and discipline in students.
- To develop a sense of solidarity, brotherhood, communal unity, teamwork, leadership, etc., in learners with the use of classroom activities.
- To prepare students to be better citizens of tomorrow.
In other words, the main objective of teaching is all-round development of students.
Levels of Teaching:
- The main proponent of the memory level of teaching is Herbart.
- This is the initial level of teaching and prerequisite for understanding and reflective levels of teaching.
- The different phases of memory include learning, retailing, recalling and recognizing.
- At this level, the teacher focuses on memorization and information by leaders. There is no attention to the understanding of information, procedures and concepts.
- The habit of rote learning is developed at this stage s that learners can retain and recall the information wherever required.
- Teachers occupy the primary position with their authoritarian and dominant role, while learners occupy methods are used.
- At this level, teacher-centered and subjective methods are used.
- It is suitable especially for lower classes.
- Oral and handwritten tests and essay type questions are used to evaluate the learning.
- The main component of understanding the level of teaching is Morrison.
- This level is an extension of memory level. It also lays the foundation for a reflective level.
- The memory level of teaching-focused only on rote of memorization of concepts, while at the understanding level, the emphasis is on mastery of the subject by developing understanding and insights.
- At this level, learners get to know about the meaning of concepts, generalizations, principles and theories along with their applications.
- Teachers and learners play an active role in the development of intellectual behavior in learners.
- Techniques used are teacher-centered and subject-centered.
- More comprehensive techniques like essay and objective-type questions are used for evaluation at the understanding level.
- The main component of the reflective level of teaching is the hunt.
- It is the highest level of teaching and makes use of the knowledge and research skills of learners for solving real-life problems.
- It involves the use of a problem-centric approach.
- The classroom environment is open and independent at this level of teaching.
- It also leads to the development of creative skills.
- Learners occupy the primary position and participate actively in learning while teachers playing democratic occupy the secondary position.
- Techniques used are student-centered.
- It is useful especially for the higher class as students of lower classes might not possess the requisite skills.
- Tests with essay-type questions are used for evaluation at this level. Also, there is an evaluation of attitude, beliefs, involvement in learning and development of critical and creative skills.