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Objectives and Levels of Teaching

Objectives of Teaching:

The objectives of teaching are given below:

  • To provide knowledge and skills to learners so that they can cope with the fast-changing world.
  • To mould and shape learners.
  • To nurture students during all stages of learning.
  • To inculcate values, morals, punctuality and discipline in students.
  • To develop a sense of solidarity, brotherhood, communal unity, teamwork, leadership, etc., in learners with the use of classroom activities.
  • To prepare students to be better citizens of tomorrow.

In other words, the main objective of teaching is all-round development of students.

Levels of Teaching:

Memory level:

  • The main proponent of the memory level of teaching is Herbart.
  • This is the initial level of teaching and prerequisite for understanding and reflective levels of teaching.
  • The different phases of memory include learning, retailing, recalling and recognizing.
  • At this level, the teacher focuses on memorization and information by leaders. There is no attention to the understanding of information, procedures and concepts.
  • The habit of rote learning is developed at this stage s that learners can retain and recall the information wherever required.
  • Teachers occupy the primary position with their authoritarian and dominant role, while learners occupy methods are used.
  • At this level, teacher-centered and subjective methods are used.
  • It is suitable especially for lower classes.
  • Oral and handwritten tests and essay type questions are used to evaluate the learning.

 

Understanding level:

  • The main component of understanding the level of teaching is Morrison.
  • This level is an extension of memory level. It also lays the foundation for a reflective level.
  • The memory level of teaching-focused only on rote of memorization of concepts, while at the understanding level, the emphasis is on mastery of the subject by developing understanding and insights.
  • At this level, learners get to know about the meaning of concepts, generalizations, principles and theories along with their applications.
  • Teachers and learners play an active role in the development of intellectual behavior in learners.
  • Techniques used are teacher-centered and subject-centered.
  • More comprehensive techniques like essay and objective-type questions are used for evaluation at the understanding level.

Reflective level:

  • The main component of the reflective level of teaching is the hunt.
  • It is the highest level of teaching and makes use of the knowledge and research skills of learners for solving real-life problems.
  • It involves the use of a problem-centric approach.
  • The classroom environment is open and independent at this level of teaching.
  • It also leads to the development of creative skills.
  • Learners occupy the primary position and participate actively in learning while teachers playing democratic occupy the secondary position.
  • Techniques used are student-centered.
  • It is useful especially for the higher class as students of lower classes might not possess the requisite skills.
  • Tests with essay-type questions are used for evaluation at this level. Also, there is an evaluation of attitude, beliefs, involvement in learning and development of critical and creative skills.


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